B1 - Lesson 9

Part 1 : Video Lesson & Transcript

Part : Listening & Reading comprehension

Part 3 : Use of English

Part 4 : Grammar lesson

Part 5 : Writing an essay & corrections

Part 6 : Speaking, interaction, & explanations.

INSTRUCTIONS

Please make sure you unfold each content for each part of the lesson.  Merci de déplier chaque contenu pour chaque partie de cette leçon.

LINKS TO GRAMMAR BOOKS :

PART 1 : VIDEO BASED LESSON & TRANSCRIPT

See instructions beneath the video.

VIDEO : CLICK ON THE PICTURE

Why are earthquakes so hard o predict

Image

Why are earthquakes so hard o predict

In 132 CE, Zhang Heng presented his latest invention: a large vase he claimed could tell them whenever an earthquake occurred for hundreds of miles. Today, we no longer rely on pots as warning systems, but earthquakes still offer challenges to those trying to track them. Why are earthquakes so hard to anticipate, and how could we get better at predicting them? Jean-Baptiste P. Koehl investigates. [Directed by Cabong Studios, narrated by Addison Anderson, music by Matheus Wittmann].

VIDEO : EXERCISE

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - INSTRUCTIONS

INSTRUCTIONS TO WORK ON THE VIDEO :

1) Listen to the video without reading the text / transcript

2) Then Listen to the video again reading the transcript as you listen.

3) Then listen to the video again without reading the transcript.

VIDEO TRANSCRIPT

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - TEXT

In 132 CE, Chinese polymath Zhang Heng presented the Han court with his latest invention. This large vase, he claimed, could tell them whenever an earthquake occurred in their kingdom– including the direction they should send aid. The court was somewhat skeptical, especially when the device triggered on a seemingly quiet afternoon. But when messengers came for help days later, their doubts turned to gratitude. Today, we no longer rely on pots to identify seismic events, but earthquakes still offer a unique challenge to those trying to track them. So why are earthquakes so hard to anticipate, and how could we get better at predicting them? 

To answer that, we need to understand some theories behind how earthquakes occur. Earth’s crust is made from several vast, jagged slabs of rock called tectonic plates, each riding on a hot, partially molten layer of Earth’s mantle. This causes the plates to spread very slowly, at anywhere from 1 to 20 centimeters per year. But these tiny movements are powerful enough to cause deep cracks in the interacting plates. And in unstable zones, the intensifying pressure may ultimately trigger an earthquake. 

It’s hard enough to monitor these miniscule movements, but the factors that turn shifts into seismic events are far more varied. Different fault lines juxtapose different rocks– some of which are stronger–or weaker– under pressure. Diverse rocks also react differently to friction and high temperatures. Some partially melt, and can release lubricating fluids made of superheated minerals that reduce fault line friction. But some are left dry, prone to dangerous build-ups of pressure. And all these faults are subject to varying gravitational forces, as well as the currents of hot rocks moving throughout Earth’s mantle. 

So which of these hidden variables should we be analyzing, and how do they fit into our growing prediction toolkit? 

Because some of these forces occur at largely constant rates, the behavior of the plates is somewhat cyclical. Today, many of our most reliable clues come from long-term forecasting, related to when and where earthquakes have previously occurred. At the scale of millennia, this allows us to make predictions about when highly active faults, like the San Andreas, are overdue for a massive earthquake. 

But due to the many variables involved, this method can only predict very loose timeframes. To predict more imminent events, researchers have investigated the vibrations Earth elicits before a quake. Geologists have long used seismometers to track and map these tiny shifts in the earth’s crust. And today, most smartphones are also capable of recording primary seismic waves. With a network of phones around the globe, scientists could potentially crowdsource a rich, detailed warning system that alerts people to incoming quakes. Unfortunately, phones might not be able to provide the advance notice needed to enact safety protocols. But such detailed readings would still be useful for prediction tools like NASA’s Quakesim software, which can use a rigorous blend of geological data to identify regions at risk. 

However, recent studies indicate the most telling signs of a quake might be invisible to all these sensors. In 2011, just before an earthquake struck the east coast of Japan, nearby researchers recorded surprisingly high concentrations of the radioactive isotope pair: radon and thoron. As stress builds up in the crust right before an earthquake, microfractures allow these gases to escape to the surface. These scientists think that if we built a vast network of radon-thoron detectors in earthquake-prone areas, it could become a promising warning system– potentially predicting quakes a week in advance. 

Of course, none of these technologies would be as helpful as simply looking deep inside the earth itself. With a deeper view we might be able to track and predict large-scale geological changes in real time, possibly saving tens of thousands of lives a year. But for now, these technologies can help us prepare and respond quickly to areas in need– without waiting for directions from a vase. 

PART 2 : COMPREHENSION

  1. Listen to the video and answer all questions below  without reading the transcript /text of the video.
  2. Then read the transcript of the video and check your answers, before looking at the corrections.

LISTENING & READING COMPREHENSION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - QUESTIONS

 

According to the video, are these statements true or false?

 

  1. Zhang Heng presented a solution to predict earthquakes that was soon discredited.
  2. Basically earthquakes derive from plates’ movements.
  3. The type of rock of the plaques influences the occurrence of an earthquake.
  4. It is possible to make accurate predictions about earthquakes due to their cyclic occurrence.
  5. Some Smartphones are capable to detect seismic waves.
  6. All earthquakes are identifiable through sensors.
  7. In the future it might be possible to predict an earthquake with a week of advance.

 

ANSWERS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ANSWERS

 

According to the video, are these statements true or false?

  1.  F
  2. T
  3. T
  4. F
  5. T
  6. F
  7. T

PART 3 : USE OF ENGLISH

USE OF ENGLISH

UNFOLD - DEPLIER- QUESTIONS

Take a look at the following sentence from the text:

So why are earthquakes so hard to anticipate?

But such detailed readings would still be useful for prediction tools.

 

We often use 'so' and 'such' to mean 'very' or 'really'. It makes the sentence stronger and shows that there is a high level of something.We use 'so' before an adjective or adverb (without a noun) and we use 'such' before a noun or an adjective + a noun. If there is 'a' or 'an', it goes after 'such'.

 

Exercise:

 

Complete the following sentences with so or such.

  1. They were __________ happy that they started dancing.
  2. She has __________ a sweet puppy.
  3. Julie is __________ a good writer.
  4. She swims __________ quickly!

5. It was __________ late we missed the last train.

 

CORRECTIONS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ANSWERS

Answers:

  1. They were so happy that they started dancing.
  2. She has such a sweet puppy.
  3. Julie is such a good writer.
  4. She swims so quickly!
  5. It was so late we missed the last train

TRADUCTION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - EXERCISE

Traduire les phrases suivantes en anglais, issues du texte, puis retrouver ces phrases dans les deux premiers paragraphes du texte en anglais:

1. Ce grand vase, pretend-il, les previendrai des qu'il y aurait un tremblement de terre dans le royaume, y compris deans quelle direction ils devraient envoyer de l'aide.

2.Mais ces minuscules mouvement sont assez puissant pour creer de profondes fissures dans les plaques en interaction.

PART 4 : GRAMMAR

LESSON

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - EXPLANATION

Essential Grammar in use p 189-190

Unit 91     too

EXERCISES

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - QUESTIONS

Put in too / too much / too many / enough

  1. You're always at home. You don't go out .....
  2. I don't like the weather here. There's .... rain.
  3. I can't wait for them. I haven't got  ..... time.
  4. There was nowhere to sit on the beach. There was ...... people.
  5. You're always tired. I think you ...... hard.
  6. 'Did you have ..... to eat ?' 'Yes, thank you.'
  7. You drink ...... coffee. It's not good for you.
  8. You don't eat ...... vegetables. You should eat more.
  9. I don't like the weather here. It's ..... cold.
  10. Our team didn't play well. We made ....... mistakes.
  11. 'Would you like some milk in your tea?'  'Yes but not  .....'

CORRECTIONS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - CORRECTIONS
  1. enough
  2. too much
  3. enough
  4. too many
  5. too
  6. enough
  7. too much
  8. enough
  9. too
  10. too many
  11. too much

PART 5 : WRITING

VOCABULARY

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(please note that this definitions are according to the context)

 

Triggered (past and past participle of the verb to trigger) - cause (an event or situation) to happen.

 

Seemingly (adverb) - so as to give the impression of having a certain quality; apparently.

 

Jagged (adjective) - with rough, sharp points.

 

Slabs (noun, plural of slab) - a large, thick, flat piece of stone, typically square or rectangular in shape.

 

Molten (adjective) - liquefied by heat.

 

Juxtapose (verb) - to put things that are not similar next to each other.

 

Prone (to) (adjective) - likely or liable to suffer from, do, or experience something unpleasant or regrettable.

 

Build-ups (noun, plural of build-up) - a gradual accumulation or increase, typically of something negative that leads to a problem.

 

Crowdsource (verb) - obtain (information or input into a particular task or project) by enlisting the services of a large number of people, either paid or unpaid, typically via the Internet.

 

Struck (past and past participle of strike) - occur suddenly and have harmful or damaging effects on.

WRITING

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ESSAY

Peseshet is a doctor and a teacher. The video describes a typical day of her life.

Now it is you turn. Write a text :

- Present yourself.

- Describe your profession.

- Tell what you did to get this job.

- Describe a typical day of your life : what usually happens when you are at work?

 

CORRECTION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - OPTION

You can book a one to one class with a teacher who will correct your writing exercise.  One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day. 

This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.

Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.

PART 6 : SPEAKING

SPEAKING

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - OPTION

You can book a one to one class with a teacher for the speaking.  One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day. 

This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.

Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.

Our online classes range from A1 to C2 levels, including specific class contents and online video classes.  They are designed to improve communication of spoken and written English with learner-centred lessons which help build students’ confidence, accuracy and fluency.

Our online learning classes offer an extensive level of flexibility for individual students, with comprehensive syllabus and content.