A2 - Lesson 12

Part 1 : Video Lesson & Transcript

Part : Listening & Reading comprehension

Part 3 : Use of English

Part 4 : Grammar lesson

Part 5 : Writing an essay & corrections

Part 6 : Speaking, interaction, & explanations.

INSTRUCTIONS

Please make sure you unfold each content for each part of the lesson.  Merci de déplier chaque contenu pour chaque partie de cette leçon.

LINKS TO GRAMMAR BOOKS :

PART 1 : VIDEO BASED LESSON & TRANSCRIPT

See instructions beneath the video.

VIDEO : CLICK ON THE PICTURE

Three ways the universe could end.

Image

Three ways the universe could end.

We know about our universe's past: the Big Bang theory predicts that all matter, time and space began about 14 billion years ago. And we know about the present: scientists' observations of galaxies tell us that the universe is expanding at an accelerated rate. But what about the future? Do we know how our universe is going to end? Venus Keus explores cosmologists' three possible scenarios. [Directed by Antimatter Studio, narrated by Susan Zimmerman, music by André Aires AIM Creative Studios].

VIDEO : EXERCISE

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - INSTRUCTIONS

INSTRUCTIONS TO WORK ON THE VIDEO :

1) Listen to the video without reading the text / transcript

2) Then Listen to the video again reading the transcript as you listen.

3) Then listen to the video again without reading the transcript.

VIDEO TRANSCRIPT

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - TEXT

We know about our universe’s past: the Big Bang theory predicts that all matter, time, and space began in an incredibly tiny, compact state about 14 billion years ago. And we know about the present: scientists’ observations of the movement of galaxies tell us that the universe is expanding at an accelerated rate. But what about the future? Do we know how our universe is going to end? 

Cosmologists have three possible answers for this question, called the Big Freeze, the Big Rip and the Big Crunch. 

To understand these three scenarios, imagine two objects representing galaxies. A short, tight rubber band is holding them together— that’s the attractive force of gravity. Meanwhile, two hooks are pulling them apart— that’s the repulsive force expanding the universe. Copy this system over and over again, and you have something approximating the real universe. The outcome of the battle between these two opposing forces determines how the end of the universe will play out.

The Big Freeze scenario is what happens if the force pulling the objects apart is just strong enough to stretch the rubber band until it loses its elasticity. The expansion wouldn’t be able to accelerate anymore, but the universe would keep getting bigger. Clusters of galaxies would separate. The objects within the galaxies– suns, planets, and solar systems would move away from each other, until galaxies dissolved into lonely objects floating separately in the vast space. The light they emit would be redshifted to long wavelengths with very low, faint energies, and the gas emanating from them would be too thin to create new stars. The universe would become darker and colder, approaching a frozen state also known as the Big Chill, or the Heat Death of the Universe. 

But what if the repulsive force is so strong that it stretches the rubber band past its elastic limit, and actually tears it? If the expansion of the universe continues to accelerate, it will eventually overcome not only the gravitational force – tearing apart galaxies and solar systems– but also the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear forces which hold atoms and nuclei together. As a result, the matter that makes up stars breaks into tiny pieces. Even atoms and subatomic particles will be destroyed. That’s the Big Rip. 

What about the third scenario, where the rubber band wins out? That corresponds to a possible future in which the force of gravity brings the universe’s expansion to a halt— and then reverses it. Galaxies would start rushing towards each other, and as they clumped together their gravitational pull would get even stronger. Stars too would hurtle together and collide. Temperatures would rise as space would get tighter and tighter. The size of the universe would plummet until everything compressed into such a small space that even atoms and subatomic particles would have to crunch together. The result would be an incredibly dense, hot, compact universe — a lot like the state that preceded the Big Bang. This is the Big Crunch. 

Could this tiny point of matter explode in another Big Bang? Could the universe expand and contract over and over again, repeating its entire history? The theory describing such a universe is known as the Big Bounce. In fact, there’s no way to tell how many bounces could’ve already happened— or how many might happen in the future. Each bounce would wipe away any record of the universe’s previous history. 
Which one of those scenarios will be the real one? The answer depends on the exact shape of the universe, the amount of dark energy it holds, and changes in its expansion rate. As of now, our observations suggest that we’re heading for a Big Freeze. But the good news is that we’ve probably got about 10 to the 100th power years before the chill sets in — so don’t start stocking up on mittens just yet. 

PART 2 : COMPREHENSION

  1. Listen to the video and answer all questions below  without reading the transcript /text of the video.
  2. Then read the transcript of the video and check your answers, before looking at the corrections.

LISTENING & READING COMPREHENSION

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According to the video, are these statements true or false?

 

  1. We know the exact time of the universe’s begin.
  2. According to the Big Freeze the “rubber band” would break apart.
  3. The Big Freeze Theory suggests that in the future entire galaxies could be separated.
  4. According to the Big Rip theory the universe could tear into pieces.
  5. The Big Crunch suggests that the universe could come back to its original form and be compacted.
  6. The Big Bounce claims that the Big Bang and the Big Crunch have already happened three times.
  7. The theory we think to be most reliable is the Big Rip Theory.

ANSWERS

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  1. F
  2. F
  3. T
  4. T
  5. T
  6. F
  7. F

PART 3 : USE OF ENGLISH

USE OF ENGLISH

UNFOLD - DEPLIER- QUESTIONS

Please take a look at the following sentence from the text:

 

Do we know how our universe is going to end? 

 

This lesson is all about the future; going to is one of the ways of expressing it.

As it is the case in our sentence, we use going to to make predictions about the future, predictions which are based on present evidence.

Going to is also used when we have the intention to do something before we speak, i.e. we have already made a decision before speaking.

 

The common future form with ‘will’ is mainly used to talk about promises and willingness to do something. They are also used to make simple predictions and show reactions to something that was just said.

 

 

Exercise:

Complete this exercise with will or going to.

 

  1. I feel really tired. I think I _________ go to bed.
  2. Do you want me to help you? No, thanks John _________ help me.
  3. Would you prefer tea or coffee? I _________ some coffee, please.
  4. Would you like to come to my house for dinner and talk about this? Good idea. I _________ bring some wine.
  5. I’ve already decided. I _________ buy a new car.

 

CORRECTIONS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ANSWERS
  1. Will
  2. Is going to
  3. Will
  4. Will
  5. Am going to

TRADUCTION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - EXERCISE

Traduire les phrases suivantes en anglais, issues du texte, puis retrouver ces phrases dans les deux premiers paragraphes du texte en anglais:

1. Et nous connaissons egalement le present : l'observation des galaxies par les scientifiques nous disent que l'univers est expension et cela va en s'accelerant.

 

2. Le resultat de cette lutte entre ces deux forces opposées decide ceomment la fin de l'univers se deroulera.

 

PART 4 : GRAMMAR

LESSON

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - EXPLANATION

Essential Grammar in use p 169-170

Unit 81  both   either   neither

EXERCISES

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - QUESTIONS

Put in both / either / neither. Use of when necessary.

  1. Last year I when to Paris and Rome. I liked ....... cities very much.
  2.  There were two pictures on the wall. I didn't like .............. them.
  3. It was a good football match. ...... teams played well.
  4. It wasn't a good football match. .......... team played well.
  5. 'Is you you friend English or American ?'  '..........  . She's Australian.'
  6. We went away for two days but the weather wasn't very good. It rained  on ......... days.
  7. A I bought the newspapers Which one do you want ?                                                                                             B ............ It doesn't matter which one.
  8. I invited Diana  and Mike to the party but ...... them came.
  9. 'Do you go by car or by bus ?'  '...... . I always walk.'
  10. 'Which jacket do you prefer,  this one or that one ? '      'I don't like ........  them'.
  11. 'Do you work or are you a student ?'   '........ . I've got a job and I study too.'
  12. Paula and I didn't know the time because ...... us had a watch.
  13. Ann has got two sisters and a brother. .......... sisters are married.
  14. Ann has got two sisters and a brother. I've met her brother but I'v never met ...... her sisters.

CORRECTIONS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - CORRECTIONS
  1. both
  2. either of
  3.  both
  4. neither
  5. neither
  6. both
  7. either
  8. neither of
  9. neither
  10. either of
  11. both
  12. neither of
  13. both
  14. either of

PART 5 : WRITING

VOCABULARY

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - WORD LIST

(please note that this definitions are according to the context)

 

Tiny (adjective) - very small.

 

Rubber band (name) - a thin ring of rubber used for holding things together.

 

Hooks (noun, plural of hook) - a piece of metal or other hard material curved or bent back at an angle, for catching hold of or hanging things on.

 

Play out (phrasal verb) - when a situation plays out, it happens and develops.

 

Stretch (verb) - to cause something to reach, often as far as possible, in aparticular direction.

 

Clusters (noun, plural of cluster) - a group of similar things or people positioned or occurring closely together.

 

Redshifted (adjective) - something that suffered the displacement of spectral lines towards longer wavelengths (the red end of the spectrum) in radiation from distant galaxies and celestial objects.

 

Hurtle together (phrasal verb) - collide.

 

Plummet (verb) - fall or drop straight down at high speed.

 

10 to the 100th power - 1 followed by 100 zeros.

WRITING

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ESSAY

Peseshet is a doctor and a teacher. The video describes a typical day of her life.

Now it is you turn. Write a text :

- Present yourself.

- Describe your profession.

- Tell what you did to get this job.

- Describe a typical day of your life : what usually happens when you are at work?

 

CORRECTION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - OPTION

You can book a one to one class with a teacher who will correct your writing exercise.  One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day. 

This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.

Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.

PART 6 : SPEAKING

SPEAKING

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - OPTION

You can book a one to one class with a teacher for the speaking.  One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day. 

This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.

Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.

Our online classes range from A1 to C2 levels, including specific class contents and online video classes.  They are designed to improve communication of spoken and written English with learner-centred lessons which help build students’ confidence, accuracy and fluency.

Our online learning classes offer an extensive level of flexibility for individual students, with comprehensive syllabus and content.