A2 - Lesson 6

Part 1 : Video Lesson & Transcript

Part : Listening & Reading comprehension

Part 3 : Use of English

Part 4 : Grammar lesson

Part 5 : Writing an essay & corrections

Part 6 : Speaking, interaction, & explanations.

INSTRUCTIONS

Please make sure you unfold each content for each part of the lesson.  Merci de déplier chaque contenu pour chaque partie de cette leçon.

LINKS TO GRAMMAR BOOKS :

PART 1 : VIDEO BASED LESSON & TRANSCRIPT

See instructions beneath the video.

VIDEO : CLICK ON THE PICTURE

A brief history of dogs.

Image

A brief history of dogs.

Since their emergence over 200,000 years ago, modern humans have established communities all over the planet. But they didn't do it alone. Whatever corner of the globe you find humans in today, you're likely to find another species as well: dogs. So how did one of our oldest rivals, the wolf, evolve into man's best friend? David Ian Howe traces the history of humanity's first domesticated animal. [Directed by Cabong Studios, narrated by Addison Anderson, music by Vadeco Schettini].

VIDEO : EXERCISE

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - INSTRUCTIONS

INSTRUCTIONS TO WORK ON THE VIDEO :

1) Listen to the video without reading the text / transcript

2) Then Listen to the video again reading the transcript as you listen.

3) Then listen to the video again without reading the transcript.

VIDEO TRANSCRIPT

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - TEXT

Since their emergence over 200,000 years ago, modern humans have established homes and communities all over the planet. But they didn’t do it alone. Whatever corner of the globe you find homo sapiens in today, you’re likely to find another species nearby: Canis lupus familiaris. Whether they’re herding, hunting, sledding, or slouching the sheer variety of domestic dogs is staggering. But what makes the story of man’s best friend so surprising is that they all evolved from a creature often seen as one of our oldest rivals: Canis lupus, or the gray wolf. When our Paleolithic ancestors first settled Eurasia roughly 100,000 years ago, wolves were one of their main rivals at the top of the food chain. Able to exert over 300 lbs. of pressure in one bone-crushing bite and sniff out prey more than a mile away, these formidable predators didn’t have much competition. Much like human hunter-gatherers, they lived and hunted in complex social groups consisting of a few nuclear families, and used their social skills to cooperatively take down larger creatures. Using these group tactics, they operated as effective persistence hunters, relying not on outrunning their prey, but pursuing it to the point of exhaustion. 

But when pitted against the similar strengths of their invasive new neighbors, wolves found themselves at a crossroads. For most packs, these bourgeoning bipeds represented a serious threat to their territory. But for some wolves, especially those without a pack, human camps offered new opportunities. Wolves that showed less aggression towards humans could come closer to their encampments, feeding on leftovers. And as these more docile scavengers outlasted their aggressive brethren, their genetic traits were passed on, gradually breeding tamer wolves in areas near human populations. 

Over time humans found a multitude of uses for these docile wolves. They helped to track and hunt prey, and might have served as sentinels to guard camps and warn of approaching enemies. Their similar social structure made it easy to integrate with human families and learn to understand their commands. Eventually they moved from the fringes of our communities into our homes, becoming humanity’s first domesticated animal. 

The earliest of these Proto-Dogs or Wolf-Dogs, seem to have appeared around 33,000 years ago, and would not have looked all that different from their wild cousins. They were primarily distinguished by their smaller size and a shorter snout full of comparatively smaller teeth. But as human cultures and occupations became more diverse and specialized, so did our friends. Short stocky dogs to herd livestock by nipping their heels; elongated dogs to flush badgers and foxes out of burrows; thin and sleek dogs for racing; and large, muscular dogs for guard duty. With the emergence of kennel clubs and dog shows during England’s Victorian era, these dog types were standardized into breeds, with many new ones bred purely for appearance. Sadly, while all dog breeds are the product of artificial selection, some are healthier than others. Many of these aesthetic characteristics come with congenital health problems, such as difficulty breathing or being prone to spinal injuries. 

Humanity’s longest experiment in controlled evolution has had other side effects as well. Generations of selection for tameness have favored more juvenile and submissive traits that were pleasing to humans. This phenomenon of selecting traits associated with youth is known as neoteny, and can be seen in many domestic animals. Thousands of years of co-evolution may even have bonded us chemically. Not only can canines understand our emotions and body language, but when dogs and humans interact, both our bodies release oxytocin; a hormone commonly associated with feelings of love and protectiveness. 

It might be difficult to fathom how every Pomeranian, Chihuahua, and Poodle are descended from fierce wolves. But the diversity of breeds today is the result of a relationship that precedes cities, agriculture, and even the disappearance of our Neanderthal cousins. And it’s heartening to know that given enough time, even our most dangerous rivals can become our fiercest friends.

PART 2 : COMPREHENSION

  1. Listen to the video and answer all questions below  without reading the transcript /text of the video.
  2. Then read the transcript of the video and check your answers, before looking at the corrections.

LISTENING & READING COMPREHENSION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - QUESTIONS

Questions:

According to the video, are these statements true or false?

 

  1. Our species has become aware of the existence of dogs in a recent past.
  2. Dogs belong to the same species that wolves do.
  3. Dogs were always “men’s best friend”.
  4. Wolves understood that they could benefit from human interaction.
  5. Dog breeds are a consequence of evolution.
  6. Dogs are not capable of feeling love and protectiveness, however they understand human emotions and body language.
  7. The variety of dogs that currently exists has an immense background.

ANSWERS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ANSWERS
  1. F
  2. T
  3. F
  4. T
  5. F
  6. F
  7. T

PART 3 : USE OF ENGLISH

USE OF ENGLISH

UNFOLD - DEPLIER- QUESTIONS
Complete these letters. Write ONE word for each space.

 

Dear Sir / Madam,

I stayed  (1) the Grand Hotel last week ( 2) Tuesday to Thursday. I think I left a gold ring (3) my hotel room. I (4) in room 309. It (5)  be in the cupboard next (6) the bed. Please (7) you look for it? (8)
you find it, can you send it to me?
Thank you very much,
Celia Hicks.

Dear Ms Hicks,
I’m pleased to tell you (9) we found your ring. It was in the bathroom under a towel. I’m (10) it to you with this letter.
We hope you enjoyed your stay at the Grand Hotel. We (11) forward to seeing you here again soon.
Yours sincerely,
Helen Dunn
Receptionist

CORRECTIONS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ANSWERS

Answers:

  1. at
  2. from
  3. in
  4. was
  5. may
  6. to
  7. can
  8. if
  9. that
  10. sending
  11. look

TRADUCTION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - EXERCISE

Traduire les phrases suivantes en anglais, issues du texte, puis retrouver ces phrases dans les deux premiers paragraphes du texte en anglais:

1. Qu'importe l'endroit du monde où l'on trouve l'homo sapiens aujourd'hui, il y a de forte chances de trouver une autre espece proche: Cani Lupus Familiaris.

2. Les loups qui se montraient moins aggressif envers les humains pouvaient s'approcher des camps et se nourrire des restes..

PART 4 : GRAMMAR

LESSON

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - EXPLANATION

Essential Grammar in use p 157-158

unit 75 some / any

EXERCISES

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - QUESTIONS

Put in some or any.

  1. I bought ... cheese but I didn't buy ... bread.
  2. I'm going to the post office. I need .... stamps.
  3. There aren't ... shops in this part of town.
  4. Georges and Alice haven't got ... children.
  5. Have you got ... brothers or sisters?
  6. There are ... beautiful flowers in the garden.
  7. Do you know .... good hotels in London ?
  8. "Would you like ... ?"  "Yes please."
  9. When we were on holiday, we visited ..... interesting places.
  10. Don't buy .... rice. We don't need .... .
  11. I went ou to buy .... milk but they didn't have ... in the shop.
  12. I'm thirsty? Can I have .... water please ?

CORRECTIONS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - CORRECTIONS
  1. some        any
  2. some
  3. any
  4. any
  5. any
  6. some
  7. any
  8. some
  9. any
  10. any     any
  11. some     any
  12. some

PART 5 : WRITING

VOCABULARY

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - WORD LIST

(please note that this definitions are according to the context)

 

Herding (-ing form of the verb to herd) - move in a group.

 

Slouching (-ing form of the verb to slouch) - stand, move, or sit in a lazy, drooping way.

 

Sheer (adjective) - nothing other than; unmitigated (used for emphasis)

 

Staggering (adjective) - deeply shocking; astonishing.

 

Outrunning (-ing form of the verb to outrun) - run faster or further than.

 

pitted against (past and past participle of the phrasal verb to pit against) - to cause (someone or something) to fight or compete against.

 

Scavengers (noun, plural of scavenger) - an animal that feeds on carrion, dead plant material, or refuse.

 

Brethren (noun) - archaic plural of brother.

 

Fringes (noun, plural of fringe) - the outer, marginal, or extreme part of.

WRITING

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ESSAY

Peseshet is a doctor and a teacher. The video describes a typical day of her life.

Now it is you turn. Write a text :

- Present yourself.

- Describe your profession.

- Tell what you did to get this job.

- Describe a typical day of your life : what usually happens when you are at work?

 

CORRECTION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - OPTION

You can book a one to one class with a teacher who will correct your writing exercise.  One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day. 

This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.

Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.

PART 6 : SPEAKING

SPEAKING

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - OPTION

You can book a one to one class with a teacher for the speaking.  One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day. 

This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.

Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.

Our online classes range from A1 to C2 levels, including specific class contents and online video classes.  They are designed to improve communication of spoken and written English with learner-centred lessons which help build students’ confidence, accuracy and fluency.

Our online learning classes offer an extensive level of flexibility for individual students, with comprehensive syllabus and content.