A2 - Lesson 4

Part 1 : Video Lesson & Transcript

Part : Listening & Reading comprehension

Part 3 : Use of English

Part 4 : Grammar lesson

Part 5 : Writing an essay & corrections

Part 6 : Speaking, interaction, & explanations.

INSTRUCTIONS

Please make sure you unfold each content for each part of the lesson.  Merci de déplier chaque contenu pour chaque partie de cette leçon.

LINKS TO GRAMMAR BOOKS :

PART 1 : VIDEO BASED LESSON & TRANSCRIPT

See instructions beneath the video.

VIDEO : CLICK ON THE PICTURE

The scret language of trees.

Image

The scret language of trees.

Most of the forest lives in the shadow of the giants that make up the highest canopy. These are the oldest trees, with hundreds of children and grandchildren. They check in with their neighbors, share food, supplies and wisdom gained over their lives, all while rooted in place. How do they do this? Camille Defrenne and Suzanne Simard explore the vast root system and intricate communication of trees. [Directed by Avi Ofer, narrated by Bethany Cutmore-Scott, music by WORKPLAYWORK and Cem Misirlioglu].

VIDEO : EXERCISE

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - INSTRUCTIONS

INSTRUCTIONS TO WORK ON THE VIDEO :

1) Listen to the video without reading the text / transcript

2) Then Listen to the video again reading the transcript as you listen.

3) Then listen to the video again without reading the transcript.

VIDEO TRANSCRIPT

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - TEXT

Most of the forest lives in the shadow of the giants that make up the highest canopy. These are the oldest trees, with hundreds of children and thousands of grandchildren. They check in with their neighbours, sharing food, supplies, and wisdom gained over their long lives

They do all this rooted in place, unable to speak, reach out, or move around. The secret to their success lies under the forest floor, where vast root systems support the towering trunks above. Partnering with these roots are symbiotic fungi called mycorrhizae. 

These fungi have countless branching, thread-like hyphae that together make up the mycelium. The mycelium spreads across a much larger area than the tree root system and connect the roots of different trees together. These connections form mycorrhizal networks. Through mycorrhizal networks, fungi can pass resources and signaling molecules between trees. 

We know the oldest trees have the largest mycorrhizal networks with the most connections to other trees, but these connections are incredibly complicated to trace. That’s because there are about a hundred species of mycorrhizal fungi– and an individual tree might be colonized by dozens of different fungal organisms, each of which connects to a unique set of other trees, which in turn each have their own unique set of fungal associations. To get a sense of how substances flow through this network, let’s zoom in on sugars, as they travel from a mature tree to a neighbouring seedling. 

Sugar’s journey starts high above the ground, in the leaves of the tallest trees above the canopy. The leaves use the ample sunlight up there to create sugars through photosynthesis. This essential fuel then travels through the tree to the base of the trunk in the thick sap.

From there, sugar flows down to the roots. Mycorrhizal fungi encounter the tips of the roots and either surround or penetrate the outer root cells, depending on the type of fungi. Fungi cannot produce sugars, though they need them for fuel just like trees do. They can, however, collect nutrients from the soil much more efficiently than tree roots— and pass these nutrients into the tree roots. In general, substances flow from where they are more abundant to where they are less abundant, or from source to sink. That means that the sugars flow from the tree roots into the fungal hyphae. Once the sugars enter the fungus, they travel along the hyphae through pores between cells or through special hollow transporter hyphae. The fungus absorbs some of the sugars, but some travels on and enters the roots of a neighbouring tree, a seedling that grows in the shade and has less opportunity to photosynthesize sugars. 


But why does fungus transport resources from tree to tree? This is one of the mysteries of the mycorrhizal networks. It makes sense for fungus to exchange soil nutrients and sugar with a tree— both parties benefit. The fungus likely benefits in less obvious ways from being part of a network between trees, but the exact ways aren’t totally clear. Maybe the fungus benefits from having connections with as many different trees as possible, and maximizes its connections by shuttling molecules between trees. Or maybe plants reduce their contributions to fungi if the fungi don’t facilitate exchanges between trees.

Whatever the reasons, these fungi pass an incredible amount of information between trees. Through the mycorrhizae, trees can tell when nutrients or signaling molecules are coming from a member of their own species or not. They can even tell when information is coming from a close relative like a sibling or parent. Trees can also share information about events like drought or insect attacks through their fungal networks, causing their neighbours to increase production of protective enzymes in anticipation of threats. 

The forest’s health relies on these intricate communications and exchanges. With everything so deeply interconnected, what impacts one species is bound to impact others.

PART 2 : COMPREHENSION

  1. Listen to the video and answer all questions below  without reading the transcript /text of the video.
  2. Then read the transcript of the video and check your answers, before looking at the corrections.

LISTENING & READING COMPREHENSION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - QUESTIONS

According to the video, are these statements true or false?

 

  1. The mycelium enables the communication between trees’ roots.
  2. Trees have always the same number of connections to other trees.
  3. Sugar is absorbed through the roots of the trees.
  4. Trees can share their sugar in order to help trees which have more difficulties to photosynthesize sugars.
  5. The reason why fungi help in the trees’ communication process is unknown.
  6. Trees can share information that is meant to protect other trees from threats.
  7. In the forest, the endangerment of species can mean the endangerment of other species.

ANSWERS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ANSWERS
  1. T
  2. F
  3. F
  4. T
  5. T
  6. T
  7. T

PART 3 : USE OF ENGLISH

USE OF ENGLISH

UNFOLD - DEPLIER- QUESTIONS

Take a look at the following sentence from the text:

These fungi have countless branching, thread-like hyphae that together make up the mycelium.

 

Can you understand how like acts when linked to a noun?

This is a very common form in English. Take a look at the explanation below.

 

Like as a suffix

We can use like as a suffix at the end of a noun to mean ‘similar to’:

-There is something child-like about Marianne. She always seems so innocent.

 

Other interesting things about like:

In informal speaking you will hear like used very commonly. It has a number of functions. It is important not to use these forms in formal writing such as academic essays. Here are some examples of this:

 

Filler

We can use like to fill in the silence when we need time to think about what to say next or how to rephrase what we have just said:

-I want to … like … I think we need to think carefully about it. It’s … like … it’s a very difficult decision for us to make.

 

Focusing attention

We can use like to bring attention to what we are going to say next. We do this especially when talking about quantities and times:

-There were like five hundred guests at the wedding. (like brings focus to the large number of guests)

-It wasn’t till like 12:00 that I actually got to start on the project. (like brings focus to how late it was)

  1.  What do chayotes  feel like / taste like / sound like? A bit like potatoes.
  2. I have a strong headache, I  feel like / taste like look / like staying in bed all day. 
  3. What language does this man speak?  It  feels like / tastes like / sounds like Portuguese.
  4. What does your son feel like / taste like / look like ? Exactly like his father.
  5. Just now, I don't look like / feel like / sound like having a cold drink. I'd like a hot one please

CORRECTIONS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ANSWERS

Answers:

  1. taste like
  2. feel like
  3. sounds like
  4. look like
  5. feel like

TRADUCTION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - EXERCISE

Traduire les phrases suivantes en anglais, issues du texte, puis retrouver ces phrases dans les deux premiers paragraphes du texte en anglais:

1. Ils s'assurent de leur bien etre mutuel, partageant nourriture, ressources et savoir aquis au cours de leurs longues vies..

2. Le secret de leur réussite se trouve dans le sous sol de la foret, où un vaste systeme de racine supporte les troncs imposants au dessus.

PART 4 : GRAMMAR

LESSON

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - EXPLANATION

Essential Grammar in use p 153-154

unit 73 This that these those

EXERCISES

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - QUESTIONS

Put the when necessary. if the sentence is already correct write ok.

  1. Kevin lives in Newton Street ....
  2. We went to see a play at National Theatre ...
  3. Have you ever been to China ?...
  4. Have you been to Phillippines ?...
  5. Have you been to south of France ?...
  6. Can you tell me where Regal Cinema is ?...
  7. Can you tell me where Merrion Street is ?...
  8. Can you tell me where Museum of Modern Arts is ?...
  9. Europe is bigger than Australia ...
  10. Belgium is smaller than Netherlands....
  11. Which river is longer - Mississippi or Nile ? ....
  12. Did you go to National Gallery when you were in London ? ...
  13. 'Where did you stay ?'  'At Park Hotel in Hudson Road'. ...
  14. How far is it from Trafalgar Square to Victoria Station (in London) ? ...
  15. Rocky Mountains are in North America.
  16. Texas is famous for oil and cowboys.
  17. Panama Canal joins Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. ...
  18. I hope to go to United States next year. ...
  19. Mary comes from a small town in west of Ireland. ...
  20. Alan studied physics at Manchester University. ...

CORRECTIONS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - CORRECTIONS
  1. Ok
  2.  the National Theatre.
  3. Ok
  4. the Philippines.
  5. the south of france.
  6. the Regal Cinema.
  7. Ok
  8. the Museum of Modern Arts.
  9. Ok
  10. than the Netherlands.
  11. the Mississippi ... the Nile.
  12. the National Gallery.
  13. the Park Hotel in Hudson Road.
  14. Ok
  15. The rocky Mountains
  16. Ok
  17. The Panama canal ... the Atlantic Ocean ... the Pacific Ocean
  18. the United States.
  19. the west of Ireland.
  20. Ok

PART 5 : WRITING

VOCABULARY

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - WORD LIST

Vocabulary:

(please note that this definitions are according to the context)

Word(s)

Description

Meaning

make up

phrasal verb

that form it

canopy

noun

the uppermost branches of the trees in a forest, forming a more or less continuous layer of foliage.

check in

phrasal verb

to communicate with someone at a certain interval in time so as to provide or ask about an update in status or otherwise simply talk

over

preposition

expressing duration

rooted

verb, past and past participle of to root

establish roots, immobile

reach out

phrasal verb

 to attempt to make contact with someone, especially in search of or to offer help, guidance, comfort, or support

towering

adjective

extremely tall, especially in comparison with the surroundings

trunks

noun, plural of trunk

the main woody stem of a tree as distinct from its branches and roots

partnering

-ing form of the verb to partner

associate, work together as partners

symbiotic

adjective

involving interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association

branching

noun

 

thread

noun

a long, thin strand of cotton, nylon, or other fibres used in sewing or weaving

hyphae

noun

each of the branching filaments that make up the mycelium of a fungus

mycelium

noun

the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a network of fine white filaments (hyphae)

trace

verb

find or describe the origin or development of

seedling

noun

a young plant, especially one raised from seed and not from a cutting

sap

noun

the fluid which circulates in the vascular system of a plant, consisting chiefly of water with dissolved sugars and mineral salts

sink

noun

area in need of nutrients

hollow

adjective

having a concave or sunken appearance

travels on

phrasal verb to travel on

continues to travel

shuttling

-ing form of the verb to shuttle

travel regularly between two or more places

drought

noun

a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to a shortage of water

threats

3rd person singular of to threaten

cause (someone or something) to be vulnerable or at risk; endanger

Relies on

phrasal verb, 3rd person singular of to rely on

to have trust or faith in someone or something; to believe that someone will do something or that something will happen

intricate

adjective

very complicated or detailed

is bound to

Expression, to be bound to

to be very likely to happen

 

Challenge:

Try to find in the text the plural of fungus.

____________

 

Answer: fungi

 

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

WRITING

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ESSAY

Peseshet is a doctor and a teacher. The video describes a typical day of her life.

Now it is you turn. Write a text :

- Present yourself.

- Describe your profession.

- Tell what you did to get this job.

- Describe a typical day of your life : what usually happens when you are at work?

 

CORRECTION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - OPTION

You can book a one to one class with a teacher who will correct your writing exercise.  One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day. 

This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.

Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.

PART 6 : SPEAKING

SPEAKING

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - OPTION

You can book a one to one class with a teacher for the speaking.  One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day. 

This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.

Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.

Our online classes range from A1 to C2 levels, including specific class contents and online video classes.  They are designed to improve communication of spoken and written English with learner-centred lessons which help build students’ confidence, accuracy and fluency.

Our online learning classes offer an extensive level of flexibility for individual students, with comprehensive syllabus and content.