B1 - Lesson 19
Part 1 : Video Lesson & Transcript
Part : Listening & Reading comprehension
Part 3 : Use of English
Part 4 : Grammar lesson
Part 5 : Writing an essay & corrections
Part 6 : Speaking, interaction, & explanations.
Please make sure you unfold each content for each part of the lesson. Merci de déplier chaque contenu pour chaque partie de cette leçon.
LINKS TO GRAMMAR BOOKS :
PART 1 : VIDEO BASED LESSON & TRANSCRIPT
See instructions beneath the video.
VIDEO : CLICK ON THE PICTURE
"The Global goals we've made progress on - and the ones we haven't"
Michael Green evaluates our progress on our global environmental targets
VIDEO : EXERCISE
INSTRUCTIONS TO WORK ON THE VIDEO :
1) Listen to the video without reading the text / transcript
2) Then Listen to the video again reading the transcript as you listen.
3) Then listen to the video again without reading the transcript.
In 2015, the leaders of the world made a big promise. A promise that over the next 15 years, the lives of billions of people are going to get better with no one left behind. That promise is the Sustainable Development Goals -- the SDGs. We're now three years in; a fifth of the way into the journey.
The clock is ticking. If we offtrack now, it's going to get harder and harder to hit those goals. So what I want to do for you today is give you a snapshot on where we are today, some projections on where we're heading and some ideas on things we might need to do differently.
Now, the SDGs are of course spectacularly complicated. I would expect nothing less from the United Nations.
How many goals? Maybe something tried and tested, like three, seven or 10. No, let's pick a prime number higher than 10. Seventeen goals. I congratulate those of you who've memorized them already. For the rest of us, here they are.
Seventeen goals ranging from ending poverty to inclusive cities to sustainable fisheries; all a comprehensive plan for the future of our world. But sadly, a plan without the data to measure it. So how are we going to track progress?
Well, I'm going to use today the Social Progress Index. It's a measure of the quality of life of countries, ranging from the basic needs of survival -- food, water, shelter, safety -- through to the foundations of well-being -- education, information, health and the environment -- and opportunity -- rights, freedom of choice, inclusiveness and access to higher education.
Now, the Social Progress Index doesn't look like the SDGs, but fundamentally, it's measuring the same concepts, and the Social Progress Index has the advantage that we have the data. We have 51 indicators drawn from trusted sources to measure these concepts. And also, what we can do because it's an index, is add together all those indicators to give us an aggregate score about how we're performing against the total package of the SDGs.
Now, one caveat. The Social Progress Index is a measure of quality of life. We're not looking at whether this can be achieved within the planet's environmental limits. You will need other tools to do that.
So how are we doing on the SDGs? Well, I'm going to put the SDGs on a scale of zero to 100. And zero is the absolute worst score on each of those 51 indicators: absolute social progress, zero. And then 100 is the minimum standard required to achieve those SDGs. A hundred is where we want to get to by 2030. So, where did we start on this journey? Fortunately, not at zero. In 2015, the world score against the SDGs was 69.1. Some way on the way there but quite a long way to go.
Now let me also emphasize that this world forecast, which is based on data from 180 countries, is population weighted. So China has more weight in than Comoros; India has more weight in than Iceland. But we could unpack this and see how the countries are doing. And the country today that is closest to achieving the SDGs is Denmark. And the country with the furthest to go is Central African Republic. And everyone else is somewhere in between.
So the challenge for the SDGs is to try and sweep all these dots across to the right, to 100 by 2030. Can we get there? Well, with the Social Progress Index, we've got some time series data. So we have some idea of the trend that the countries are on, on which we can build some projections.
So let's have a look. Let's start with our top-performing country, Denmark. And yes, I'm pleased to say that Denmark is forecast to achieve the SDGs by 2030. Maybe not surprising, but I'll take a win. Let's look at some of the other richer countries of the world -- the G7. And we find that Germany and Japan will get there or thereabouts.
But Canada, France, the UK and Italy are all going to fall short. And the United States? Quite some way back. Now, this is sort of worrying news. But these are the richest countries in the world, not the most populous. So let's take a look now at the biggest countries in the world, the ones that will most affect whether or not we achieve the SDGs.
And here they are -- countries in the world with a population of higher than 100 million, ranging from China to Ethiopia. Obviously, the US and Japan would be in that list, but we've looked at them already. So here we are. The biggest countries in the world; the dealbreakers for the SDGs. And the country that's going to make most progress towards the SDGs is Mexico. Mexico is going to get to about 87, so just shy of where the US is going to get but quite some way off our SDG target.
Russia comes next. Then China and Indonesia. Then Brazil -- might've expected Brazil to do a bit better. Philippines, and then a step down to India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nigeria, and then Ethiopia. So none of these countries are going to hit the SDGs. And we can then take these numbers in all the countries of the world to give ourselves a world forecast on achieving that total package of the SDGs. So remember, in 2015 we started at 69.1.
I'm pleased to say that over the last three years, we have made some progress. In 2018, we've hit 70.5, and if we project that rate of progress forward to 2030, that's going to get us to 75.2, which is obviously a long way short of our target. Indeed, on current trends, we won't hit the 2030 targets until 2094. Now, I don't know about you, but I certainly don't want to wait that long.
So what can we do about this? Well, the first thing to do is we've got to call out the rich countries. Here are the countries closest to the SDGs, with the greatest resources, and they're falling short. Maybe they think that this is like the Old World where goals for the UN are just for poor countries and not for them. Well, you're wrong.
The SDGs are for every country, and it's shameful that these wealthy countries are falling short. Every country needs a plan to implement the SDGs and deliver them for their citizens. G7, other rich countries -- get your act together.
The second thing we can do is look a bit further into the data and see where there are opportunities to accelerate progress or there are negative trends that we can reverse. So I'm going to take you into three areas. One where we're doing quite well, one where we really should be doing better and another where we've got some real problems.
Let's start with the good news, and I want to talk about what we call nutrition and basic medical care. This covers SDG 2 on no hunger and the basic elements of SDG 3 on health, so maternal and child mortality, infectious diseases, etc ... This is an area where most of the rich world has hit the SDGs. And we also find, looking at our big countries, that the most advanced have got pretty close. Here are our 11 big countries, and if you look at the top, Brazil and Russia are pretty close to the SDG target. But at the bottom -- Ethiopia, Pakistan -- a long way to go. That's where we are in 2018. What's our trajectory?
On the current trajectory, how far are we going to get by 2030? Well, let's have a look. Well, what we see is a lot of progress. See Bangladesh in the middle. If Bangladesh maintains its current rate of progress, it could get very close to that SDG target. And Ethiopia at the bottom is making a huge amount of progress at the moment. If that can be maintained, Ethiopia could get a long way.
We add this all up for all the countries of the world and our projection is a score of 94.5 by 2030. And if countries like the Philippines, which have grown more slowly, could accelerate progress, then we could get a lot closer.
So there are reasons to be optimistic about SDGs 2 and 3. But there's another very basic area of the SDGs where we're doing less well, which is SDG 6, on water and sanitation. Again, it's an SDG where most of the rich countries have already achieved the targets. And again, for our big countries -- our big 11 emerging countries, we see that some of the countries, like Russia and Mexico, are very close to the target, but Nigeria and other countries are a very long way back.
So how are we doing on this target? What progress are we going to make over the next 12 years based on the current direction of travel? Well, here we go ... and yes, there is some progress. Our top four countries are all hitting the SDG targets -- some are moving forward quite quickly. But it's not enough to really move us forward significantly. What we see is that for the world as a whole, we're forecasting a score of around 85, 86 by 2030 -- not fast enough.
Now, obviously this is not good news, but I think what this data also shows is that we could be doing a lot better. Water and sanitation is a solved problem. It's about scaling that solution everywhere. So if we could accelerate progress in some of those countries who are improving more slowly -- Nigeria, the Philippines, etc. -- then we could get a lot closer to the goal. Indeed, I think SDG 6 is probably the biggest opportunity of all the SDGs for a step change.
So that's an area we could do better. Let's look finally at an area where we are struggling, which is what we call personal rights and inclusiveness. This is covering concepts across a range of SDGs. SDG 1 on poverty, SDG 5 on gender equality, SDG 10 on inequality, SDG 11 on inclusive cities and SDG 16 on peace and justice. So across those SDGs there are themes around rights and inclusiveness, and those may seem less immediate or pressing than things like hunger and disease, but rights and inclusion are critical to an agenda of no one left behind. So how are we doing on those issues?
Let's start off with personal rights. What I'm going to do first is show you our big countries in 2015. So here they are, and I've put the USA and Japan back in, so it's our 13 biggest countries in the world. And we see a wide range of scores. The United States at the top with Japan hitting the goals; China a long way behind. So what's been our direction of travel on the rights agenda over the last three years? Let's have a look. Well, what we see is actually pretty ugly. The majority of the countries are standing still or moving backwards, and big countries like Brazil, India, China, Bangladesh have all seen significant declines. This is worrying.
Let's have a look now at inclusiveness. And inclusiveness is looking at things like violence and discrimination against minorities, gender equity, LGBT inclusion, etc... And as a result, we see that the scores for our big countries are generally lower. Every country, rich and poor alike, is struggling with building an inclusive society. But what's our direction of travel? Are we building more inclusive countries? Let's have a look -- progress to 2018. And again we see the world moving backwards: most countries static, a lot of countries going backwards -- Bangladesh moving backwards -- but also, two of the countries that were leading -- Brazil and the United States -- have gone backwards significantly over the last three years.
Let's sum this up now for the world as a whole. And what we see on personal rights for the whole world is we're forecasting actually a decline in the score on personal rights to about 60, and then this decline in the score of inclusiveness to about 42. Now, obviously these things can change quite quickly with rights and with changes in law, changes in attitudes, but we have to accept that on current trends, this is probably the most worrying aspect of the SDGs. How I've depressed you
Let's sum this up now for the world as a whole. And what we see on personal rights for the whole world is we're forecasting actually a decline in the score on personal rights to about 60, and then this decline in the score of inclusiveness to about 42. Now, obviously these things can change quite quickly with rights and with changes in law, changes in attitudes, but we have to accept that on current trends, this is probably the most worrying aspect of the SDGs. How I've depressed you ...
But in focusing on those really basic, solvable SDGs, we mustn't forget the whole package. The goals are an unwieldy set of indicators, goals and targets, but they also include the challenges our world faces. The fact that the SDGs are focusing attention on the fact that we face a crisis in personal rights and inclusiveness is a positive. If we forget that, if we choose to double down on the SDGs that we can solve, if we go for SDG à la carte and pick the most easy SDGs, then we will have missed the point of the SDGs, we will miss the goals and we will have failed on the promise of the SDGs.
PART 2 : COMPREHENSION
- Listen to the video and answer all questions below without reading the transcript /text of the video.
- Then read the transcript of the video and check your answers, before looking at the corrections.
LISTENING AND READING COMPREHENSION
- What do the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)* promise?
- How many SDGs are there?
- List 4 things the Social Progress Index measures.
- Which score is the objective to get to by 2030?
- Which countries are the closest to and furthest from achieving the 2030 goal?
- True or false? Canada, The USA, France, The UK and Italy are making very good progress in achieving the SDG goal.
- True or false? A country’s population size is the major factor in determining whether it will reach the SDG goal.
- Globally, how much progress has been made in the last 3 years?
- Which of the options below best describes Michael Green’s attitude towards the richest countries on achieving the SDG goal?
- Positive critical c. indifferent
- In which areas have most of the rich countries achieved the SDGs?
- Which countries and quite close to the SDG target?
- On which SDG are we making less progress?
- On which SDG are we having difficulty achieving?
- Which of the following does the term “inclusiveness” include? More than 1 answer is possible.
- a. Gender equality poverty c. violence and discrimination against minorities d. animal rights.
- True or false? According to Michael Green, the decline in scores on inclusiveness and personal rights globally is not particularly concerning.
- In the end, is Michael Green’s attitude towards the possibility of change in the future negative or positive?
- The lives of billions will improve and no one will be neglected in the next 15 years.
- Any of the following: food, water, shelter, safety, education, information, health and the environment -- and opportunity -- rights, freedom of choice, inclusiveness and access to higher education.
- The closest is Denmark and the furthest is Central African Republic.
- From 69.9 in 2015 to 75.2 in 2018.
- b. critical
- No hunger, health, maternal and child mortality and infectious diseases.
- Brazil and Russia.
- Water and sanitation
- Personal rights and inclusiveness
- a and c.
- He finds this worrying.
PART 3 : USE OF ENGLISH
USE OF ENGLISH
Here is text from the WHO about poverty and SDG
Match the highlighted word with their definitions.
Monitoring poverty is important on the global development agenda as well as on the national development agenda of many countries. The World Bank produced its first global poverty estimates for developing countries for World Development Report 1990: Poverty (World Bank 1990) using househ old survey data for 22 countries (Ravallion, Datt, and van de Walle 1991). Since then there has been considerable expansion in the number of countries that field household income and expenditure surveys. The World Bank's Development Research Group maintain s a database that is updated annually as new survey data become available (and thus may contain more recent data or revisions) and conducts a major reassessment of progress against poverty every year. PovcalNet is an interactive computational tool that all ows users to replicate these internationally comparable $1.90 and $3.10 a day global, regional and country - level poverty estimates and to compute poverty measures for custom country groupings and for different poverty lines. The Poverty and Equity Data p ortal provides access to the database and user - friendly dashboards with graphs and interactive maps that visualize trends in key poverty and inequality indicators for different regions and countries. The country dashboards display trends in poverty measure s based on the national poverty lines alongside the internationally comparable estimates, produced from and consistent with PovcalNet.
The indicator Proportion of population below the international poverty line is defined as the percentage of the population living on less than $1.90 a day at 2011 international prices. The 'international poverty line' is currently set at $1.90 a day at 2011 international prices.
Method of estimation:
Data are taken from the United Nations' SDG Indicators Global Database. See links below for more information. To measure poverty across countries consistently, the World Bank’s international measures apply a common standard, anchored to what “poverty” means in the world’s poorest countries. The current extreme poverty line is set at $1.90 a day in 2011 PPP terms, which represents the mean of the national poverty lines found in the same poorest 15 countries ranked by per capita consumption. When measuring international poverty of a country, the international poverty line at PPP is converted to local currencies in 2011 price and is then converted to the prices prevailing at the time of the relevant household survey using the best available Consumer Price Index (CPI). (Equivalently, the survey data on household consumption or income for the survey year are expressed in the prices of the ICP base year, and then converted to PPP $’s.) Then the poverty rate is calculated from that survey. All inter-temporal comparisons are real, as assessed using the country-specific CPI. Interpolation/extrapolation methods areused to line up the survey-based estimates with these reference years.
............. watching the evolution of something
.............. calculate a number or an amount
............... deal with a question, especially a difficult one
.............. things that go in the same direction, follow the same pattern, or copy each other
............... comparative to the average number of people affected
.............. calculate what something costs or is worth
monitoring... watching the evolution of something
compute..... calculate a number or an amount
field.... deal with a question, especially a difficult one
trend..... things that go in the same direction, follow the same pattern, or copy each other
per capita.... comparative to the average number of people affected
assessed.... calculated what something costs or is worth
Lire les phrases suivantes du texte du listening en francais. Il faut les traduire vers l'anglais sans regarder le texte d'abord et puis vous les trouverez dans les paragraphes 5 et 20
1. Il y a dix-sept objectifs qui concernent la fin de la misere, rendre nos villes plus inclusives et la peche durable. Il s'agit d'un plan comprehensif pour le futur. Mais malhereusment, c'est un plan qui n'a pas les chiffres pour le soutenir.
2. La deuxieme chose a faire est d'approfondir nos analyses des chiffres et trouver des opportunités d'accelerer le progres ou s'il y a des tendences negatives pour lesquelles nous pouvons faire une marche en arriere.
PART 4 : GRAMMAR
Used to, to be used to.
‘Used to + infinitive’:
We use this expression to talk about habits or repeated actions in the past which we don’t do in the present. We also use it to talk about states in the past which are no longer true.
- I used to have long hair (but now I have short hair). • He used to smoke (but now he doesn’t smoke).
- They used to live in India (but now they live in Germany). Watch out! With the negative and the question it’s ‘use’ and not ‘used’:
- Did you use to be a teacher?
- Did he use to study French? • She didn’t use to like chocolate, but she does now. • I didn’t use to want to have a nice house.
‘Be used to’:
We use ‘be used to + verb-ing’ to talk about things which feel normal for us or things that we are accustomed to:
- I’m used to getting up early, so I don’t mind doing it (= getting up early is normal for me, it’s what I usually do).
- My little daughter is used to eating lunch at noon. So she was grumpy yesterday when we didn’t eat until one. Note that we make the negative or the question with the verb ‘be’ in the normal way. The ‘used to’ doesn’t change:
- Lucy isn’t used to staying up late, so she’s very tired today.
- Are your children used to walking a lot?
Make an affirmative sentence, negative sentence or question using ‘used to + infinitive’:
1. I / live in a flat when I was a child. _______________________________________________________________
2. We / go to the beach every summer? _______________________________________________________________
3. She / love eating chocolate, but now she hates it. _______________________________________________________________
4. He / not / smoke. _______________________________________________________________
5. I / play tennis when I was at school. _______________________________________________________________
6. She / be able to speak French, but she has forgotten it all. _______________________________________________________________
7. He / play golf every weekend? _______________________________________________________________
8. They both / have short hair. _______________________________________________________________
9. Julie / study Portuguese. _______________________________________________________________
10. I / not / hate school. _______________________________________________________________
Make sentences using ‘be used to + verb-ing’ or ‘be used to + noun / pronoun’. You need to choose the correct tense:
1. I (live) in London, so the crowds don’t bother me. _______________________________________________________________
2. She (the Tokyo subway) so she doesn’t get lost. _______________________________________________________________
3. He (not / deal) with animals, so he’s a bit scared of the dogs. _______________________________________________________________
4. John (drive) in heavy traffic. _______________________________________________________________
5. I (wake) up in the night with my baby. I drink lots of coffee! _______________________________________________________________
6. It was very hard to get up at five when I first started this job, because I (not / it). _______________________________________________________________
7. She (drink) a lot of coffee, so she doesn’t have a problem with going to sleep afterwards. _______________________________________________________________
8. I’ve lived here in Hokkaido for three years but I (not / the snow). _______________________________________________________________
9. He (do) a lot of exercise, so a ten-mile walk is easy for him. _______________________________________________________________
10. Julie’s flat is in the centre of London. When she visits a friend in the countryside, it’s difficult for her to sleep because she (not / the quiet). _______________________________________________________________
Practice 1 answers:
1. I used to live in a flat when I was a child.
2. Did we use to go to the beach every summer?
3. She used to love eating chocolate, but now she hates it.
4. He didn’t use to smoke.
5. I used to play tennis when I was at school.
6. She used to be able to speak French, but she has forgotten it all.
7. Did he use to play golf every weekend?
8. They both used to have short hair.
9. Julie used to study Portuguese.
10. I didn’t use to hate school.
Practice 2 answers:
1. I’m used to living in London, so the crowds don’t bother me.
2. She’s used to the Tokyo subway so she doesn’t get lost.
3. He’s not used to dealing with animals, so he’s a bit scared of the dogs.
4. John’s used to driving in heavy traffic.
5. I’m used to waking up in the night with my baby. I drink lots of coffee!
6. It was very hard to get up at five when I first started this job, because I wasn’t used to it.
7. She’s used to drinking a lot of coffee, so she doesn’t have a problem with going to sleep afterwards.
8. I’ve lived here in Hokkaido for three years but I’m still not used to the snow.
9. He’s used to doing a lot of exercise, so a ten-mile walk is easy for him.
10. Julie’s flat is in the centre of London. When she visits a friend in the countryside, it’s difficult for her to sleep because she’s not used to the quiet.
PART 5 : WRITING
To outline : souligner, mettre en évidence
Supplies : approvisionnements
Injury : une blessure
Sting : une piqûre
Spell : un sort
To be pregnant : tomber enceinte
Politely : gentiment
Record : un registre
To oversee : surveiller
Thin : maigre
To beg : supplier
Advice : conseil
Peseshet is a doctor and a teacher. The video describes a typical day of her life.
Now it is you turn. Write a text :
- Present yourself.
- Describe your profession.
- Tell what you did to get this job.
- Describe a typical day of your life : what usually happens when you are at work?
You can book a one to one class with a teacher who will correct your writing exercise. One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day.
This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.
Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.
PART 6 : SPEAKING
You can book a one to one class with a teacher for the speaking. One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day.
This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.
Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.
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