A2 - Lesson 8

Part 1 : Video Lesson & Transcript

Part : Listening & Reading comprehension

Part 3 : Use of English

Part 4 : Grammar lesson

Part 5 : Writing an essay & corrections

Part 6 : Speaking, interaction, & explanations.

INSTRUCTIONS

Please make sure you unfold each content for each part of the lesson.  Merci de déplier chaque contenu pour chaque partie de cette leçon.

LINKS TO GRAMMAR BOOKS :

PART 1 : VIDEO BASED LESSON & TRANSCRIPT

See instructions beneath the video.

VIDEO : CLICK ON THE PICTURE

The mysterious science of pain.

Image

The mysterious science of pain.

In 1995, the British Medical Journal published a report about a builder who accidentally jumped onto a nail, which pierced straight through his steel-toed boot. He was in such agonizing pain that any movement was unbearable. But when the doctors took off his boot, they discovered that the nail had never touched his foot at all. What's going on? Joshua W. Pate investigates the experience of pain. [Directed by Artrake Studio, narrated by Addison Anderson].

VIDEO : EXERCISE

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - INSTRUCTIONS

INSTRUCTIONS TO WORK ON THE VIDEO :

1) Listen to the video without reading the text / transcript

2) Then Listen to the video again reading the transcript as you listen.

3) Then listen to the video again without reading the transcript.

VIDEO TRANSCRIPT

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - TEXT

In 1995, the British Medical Journal published an astonishing report about a 29-year-old builder. He accidentally jumped onto a 15-centimeter nail, which pierced straight through his steel-toed boot. He was in such agonizing pain that even the smallest movement was unbearable. But when the doctors took off his boot, they faced a surprising sight: the nail had never touched his foot at all. 

For hundreds of years, scientists thought that pain was a direct response to damage. By that logic, the more severe an injury is, the more pain it should cause. But as we’ve learned more about the science of pain, we’ve discovered that pain and tissue damage don’t always go hand in hand, even when the body’s threat signaling mechanisms are fully functioning. We’re capable of experiencing severe pain out of proportion to an actual injury, and even pain without any injury, like the builder, or the well-documented cases of male partners of pregnant women experiencing pain during the pregnancy or labor. 

What’s going on here? There are actually two phenomena at play: the experience of pain, and a biological process called nociception. Nociception is part of the nervous system’s protective response to harmful or potentially harmful stimuli. Sensors in specialized nerve endings detect mechanical, thermal, and chemical threats. If enough sensors are activated, electrical signals shoot up the nerve to the spine and on to the brain. The brain weighs the importance of these signals and produces pain if it decides the body needs protection. Typically, pain helps the body avoid further injury or damage. But there are a whole set of factors besides nociception that can influence the experience of pain— and make pain less useful. 

First, there are biological factors that amplify nociceptive signals to the brain. If nerve fibers are activated repeatedly, the brain may decide they need to be more sensitive to adequately protect the body from threats. More stress sensors can be added to nerve fibers until they become so sensitive that even light touches to the skin spark intense electrical signals. In other cases, nerves adapt to send signals more efficiently, amplifying the message. These forms of amplification  are most common in people experiencing chronic pain, which is defined as pain lasting more than 3 months. When the nervous system is nudged into an ongoing state of high alert, pain can outlast physical injury. This creates a vicious cycle in which the longer pain persists, the more difficult it becomes to reverse. 

Psychological factors clearly play a role in pain too, potentially by influencing nociception and by influencing the brain directly. A person’s emotional state, memories, beliefs about pain and expectations about treatment can all influence how much pain they experience. In one study, children who reported believing they had no control over pain actually experienced more intense pain than those who believed they had some control. Features of the environment matter too: In one experiment, volunteers with a cold rod placed on the back of their hand reported feeling more pain when they were shown a red light than a blue one, even though the rod was the same temperature each time. Finally, social factors like the availability of family support can affect perception of pain. All of this means that a multi-pronged approach to pain treatment that includes pain specialists, physical therapists, clinical psychologists, nurses and other healthcare professionals is often most effective. 

We’re only beginning to uncover the mechanisms behind the experience of pain, but there are some promising areas of research. Until recently, we thought the glial cells surrounding neurons were just support structures, but now we know they have a huge role in influencing nociception. Studies have shown that disabling certain brain circuits in the amygdala can eliminate pain in rats. And genetic testing in people with rare disorders that prevent them from feeling pain have pinpointed several other possible targets for drugs and perhaps eventually gene therapy.

PART 2 : COMPREHENSION

  1. Listen to the video and answer all questions below  without reading the transcript /text of the video.
  2. Then read the transcript of the video and check your answers, before looking at the corrections.

LISTENING & READING COMPREHENSION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - QUESTIONS

Questions:

According to the video, are these statements true or false?

  1. Pain is a direct response to damage.
  2. Our pain is always proportional to the injury.
  3. There is one clear explanation for the feeling of pain.
  4. The brain is the one responsible for deciding the degree of pain we are feeling.
  5. If the pain is more intense it is more difficult to go away.
  6. Social factors don’t play any role in our experience of pain.
  7. There are still many things to discover about our perception of pain.

ANSWERS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ANSWERS
  1. F
  2. F
  3. F
  4. T
  5. F
  6. F
  7. T

PART 3 : USE OF ENGLISH

USE OF ENGLISH

UNFOLD - DEPLIER- QUESTIONS

Most singular nouns, as you might know, are made plural by simply putting an -s at the end. However, for every rule there is an exception - you are probably used to it by now.

 

As an example of this and as a challenge try to find the plurals of the following words:

 

Phenomenon -

Stimulus -

 

 

 

CORRECTIONS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ANSWERS

Answer: phenomenon - phenomena; stimulus - stimuli.

TRADUCTION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - EXERCISE

Traduire les phrases suivantes en anglais, issues du texte, puis retrouver ces phrases dans les deux premiers paragraphes du texte en anglais:

1. Il souffrait tellement que le moindre mouvement était insupportable

2. Mais alors que nous en avons appris plus sur la science de la douleur, nous avons decouvert que douleur et tissu endommagé ne vont pas toujour par pair,meme lorsque les systemes de signalement de danger du corps fonctionne parfaitement.

PART 4 : GRAMMAR

LESSON

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - EXPLANATION

Essential Grammar in use p 161-162

unit 77 not + anybody/ anyone/anything

nobody/no-one/nothing.

EXERCISES

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - QUESTIONS

Write these sentences again with nobody/no-on or nothing

  1. There isn't anything in the bag.
  2. There isn't anybody in the office.
  3. I haven't got anything to do.
  4. There isn't anything on TV.
  5. There wasn't anyone at home
  6. We didn't find anything.

CORRECTIONS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - CORRECTIONS
  1. There's nothing in the bag.
  2. There's nobody in the office.
  3. I've got nothing to do.
  4. There's nothing on TV.
  5. There was no-one hone.
  6. We found nothing.

PART 5 : WRITING

VOCABULARY

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - WORD LIST

(please note that this definitions are according to the context)

 

Astonishing (adjective) - extremely surprising or impressive; amazing.

 

Pierced (past and past participle of to pierce) - to go into or through something, making a hole in it using a sharp pointed object (in this case the nail).

To go hand in hand (expression) -  this is used to say that two people or things are very closely connected or related.

 

At play (expression) - to be considered.

 

Injury (noun) - physical harm or damage to someone's body.

 

Threats (noun, plural of threat) - a suggestion that something unpleasant or violent will happen.

 

Play a role (expression) - to be involved in it and have an effect on it.

 

Spark (verb, to spark) - to cause the start of something.

 

Uncover (verb, to uncover) - to discover something.

 

Pinpointed (past and past participle of to pinpoint) - find or identify with great accuracy or precision.

WRITING

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ESSAY

Peseshet is a doctor and a teacher. The video describes a typical day of her life.

Now it is you turn. Write a text :

- Present yourself.

- Describe your profession.

- Tell what you did to get this job.

- Describe a typical day of your life : what usually happens when you are at work?

 

CORRECTION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - OPTION

You can book a one to one class with a teacher who will correct your writing exercise.  One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day. 

This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.

Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.

PART 6 : SPEAKING

SPEAKING

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - OPTION

You can book a one to one class with a teacher for the speaking.  One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day. 

This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.

Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.

Our online classes range from A1 to C2 levels, including specific class contents and online video classes.  They are designed to improve communication of spoken and written English with learner-centred lessons which help build students’ confidence, accuracy and fluency.

Our online learning classes offer an extensive level of flexibility for individual students, with comprehensive syllabus and content.