A2 - Lesson 7

Part 1 : Video Lesson & Transcript

Part : Listening & Reading comprehension

Part 3 : Use of English

Part 4 : Grammar lesson

Part 5 : Writing an essay & corrections

Part 6 : Speaking, interaction, & explanations.

INSTRUCTIONS

Please make sure you unfold each content for each part of the lesson.  Merci de déplier chaque contenu pour chaque partie de cette leçon.

LINKS TO GRAMMAR BOOKS :

PART 1 : VIDEO BASED LESSON & TRANSCRIPT

See instructions beneath the video.

VIDEO : CLICK ON THE PICTURE

The moon illusion.

Image

The moon illusion.

Have you noticed how the full moon looks bigger on the horizon than high overhead? Actually, the two images are exactly the same size -- so why do we perceive them differently? Scientists aren't sure, but there are plenty of intriguing theories. Andrew Vanden Heuvel unravels the details of focus, distance and proportion that contribute to this mystifying optical illusion. [Directed by Kozmonot Animation Studio, narrated by Michelle Snow].

VIDEO : EXERCISE

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - INSTRUCTIONS

INSTRUCTIONS TO WORK ON THE VIDEO :

1) Listen to the video without reading the text / transcript

2) Then Listen to the video again reading the transcript as you listen.

3) Then listen to the video again without reading the transcript.

VIDEO TRANSCRIPT

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - TEXT

Have you ever noticed how the full moon looks bigger when it's near the horizon than when it's high overhead? If so, you're not alone. People have wondered about this strange effect since ancient times, and surprisingly, we still don't have a great explanation, but that's not for lack of trying. Some of the greatest minds in history - Aristotle, Ptolemy, Da Vinci, Decartes - have all wrestled with this problem and failed to generate an adequate explanation. One of the first ideas suggested was that the image of the moon in the sky really is bigger near the horizon. Perhaps the Earth's atmosphere acts like a giant lens, magnifying the moon as it rises and sets. But this explanation doesn't cut it. If anything, the refraction of the atmosphere would make the moon look slightly smaller. Plus, if you actually measure the size of the visible moon at different positions, it doesn't change at all. But then, why does it still seem bigger when it's rising? This must be some kind of optical illusion. The question is, which one? One explanation is the Ebbinghaus Illusion, where two identical objects look different because of the relative size of the objects they're surrounded by. Here the two center circles are actually the same size. Maybe the moon looks bigger near the horizon because it's next to tiny trees, houses, and towers in the distance. But when the moon is higher up, it's surrounded by the vast darkness of the night sky and looks tiny by comparison. Another possibility is the famous Ponzo Illusion. If you've ever tried to draw in perspective, you know that the closer something is to the horizon, the smaller you should draw it. Our brain compensates automatically for this by perceiving objects near the horizon as larger than they actually appear. The two yellow lines in this drawing are the same size, but the upper one seems bigger because we interpret it as receding farther into the horizon. So, between Ponzo and Ebbinghaus, it seems like we've solved the mystery of the moon illusion, but, unfortunately, there are a few details that complicate things. For one thing, if this was just the Ebbinghaus effect, then we would expect the moon illusion to disappear for pilots flying high above the clouds since there wouldn't be any other smaller objects near the horizon. But in fact, pilots and sailors out on the ocean still claim to see the moon illusion. On the other hand, if it's just our brain's auto-correcting the size of objects near the horizon, then we'd expect the moon illusion to be visible inside a planetarium, where the whole sky, including the horizon, is displayed on a spherical dome overhead. Studies have shown, though, that this is not the case. To make matters worse, it seems the moon illusion disappears entirely if you just bend over and look at the moon between your legs. Now, this is just getting ridiculous! One of the most promising explanations today is known as Convergence Micropsia. Our brains judge the distance to objects and their apparent size by the focus of our eyes. When looking at the horizon, your eyes focus far-off into the distance so your brain knows you're looking far away. The moon appears a certain size. Your brain thinks it's far away, which it is, so you naturally conclude the moon must be big. But when looking up at the night sky, there's nothing for your eyes to focus on, so they default to their rest focus, which is a point just a few meters away. Now your brain thinks the moon is much closer than it really is, so you naturally conclude the moon's not as big as you thought it was. Rather than explain why the moon looks so big near the horizon, Convergence Microspia explains why the moon looks so small when overhead. Still not satisfied? Well, frankly, neither are many scientists, so the debate over the moon illusion still rages on and may continue as long as we still see it in the night sky. 

PART 2 : COMPREHENSION

  1. Listen to the video and answer all questions below  without reading the transcript /text of the video.
  2. Then read the transcript of the video and check your answers, before looking at the corrections.

LISTENING & READING COMPREHENSION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - QUESTIONS

According to the video, are these statements true or false?

  1. There is an universal accepted theory about why the moon looks bigger on the horizon.
  2. One theory to explain the moon illusion was that the atmosphere itself made the moon look bigger.
  3. According to the Ebbinghaus effect, two objects of different sizes can look the same size, depending on the objects that are around them.
  4. The Ponzo and Ebbinghaus are the best explanations for the moon illusion.
  5. The moon illusion disappears if you bend over and look at the moon between your legs.
  6. The focus of our eyes determines the distance we are from objects.
  7. All scientist agree with the Convergence Microspia theory.

 

ANSWERS

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  1. F
  2. T
  3. F
  4. F
  5. T
  6. T
  7. F

PART 3 : USE OF ENGLISH

USE OF ENGLISH

UNFOLD - DEPLIER- QUESTIONS

Take a look at the following sentence from the text:

 

On the other hand, if it's just our brain's auto-correcting the size of objects near the horizon

 

What is the difference between these ‘s?

Answer: The first one is the contraction of the 3rd person singular of the verb to be with the personal pronoun it (it is), the second one refers to the possessive case. It is very common for students to confuse these two.

 

The possessive case is used to show ownership ans it is very easy to use:

-Singular nouns form their possessive case by adding ‘s to the singular. (e.g.: The boy’s dog - the dog of the boy).

-Plural nouns ending in -s form their possessive case by adding only an apostrophe. (e.g.: the boy’s school - the school of the boys)

 

Exercise:

Try to form the possessive case with the words given.

 

  1. This is _____________ book. (Peter)
  2. My _____________  car was not expensive. (parents)
  3. The  _____________  room is upstairs. (children)
  4. _____________  sister is twelve years old. (John)
  5. _____________  and  school is old. (Susan and Steve)

 

CORRECTIONS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ANSWERS

Answers:

  1. This is Peter's book.
  2. My parentscar was not expensive.
  3. The children's room is upstairs.
  4. John's sister is twelve years old.
  5. Susan and Steve's school is old.

TRADUCTION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - EXERCISE

Traduire les phrases suivantes en anglais, issues du texte, puis retrouver ces phrases dans les deux premiers paragraphes du texte en anglais:

1.  Les gens cherchent à expliquer se phenomene depuis les temps ancients, et, bizarrement nous n'avons toujours pas d'explication convenable, et ce n'est pas faute d'avoir essayé.

2. Ce qui qui est pire encore est que l'illusion lunaire semble disparaitre completement si on se penche et qu'on la regarde entre les jambes.

PART 4 : GRAMMAR

LESSON

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - EXPLANATION

Essential Grammar in use p 159-160

unit 76 not+any no none

EXERCISES

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - QUESTIONS

Complete the sentences. use any or no + one of these words:

answer  difference  film  friends  furniture  heating  money  photographs  problems  questions

  1. Everything was OK. there was .... .
  2. They wanted to go on holiday but they've got .... .
  3. I'm not going to answer .... .
  4. He's always alone. He's got .... .
  5. There is .... between these two machines. They're exactly the same.
  6. There wasn't ..... . in the room. It was completely empty.
  7. I tried to phone you yesterday but there was ...... .
  8. The house is cold because there isn't .... .
  9. I can't take ..... . There's ..... in the camera.

CORRECTIONS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - CORRECTIONS
  1. no problems.
  2. no money
  3. any questions
  4. no friends
  5. no difference
  6. any furniture
  7. no answer
  8. any heating
  9. any photographs .... no film

PART 5 : WRITING

VOCABULARY

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - WORD LIST

(please note that this definitions are according to the context)

 

Overhead (adjective) - above the level of the head; in the sky.

 

Doesn’t cut it (expression - not to cut something) - it is not able to give a satisfactory explanation.

 

Perceive (verb to perceive) - become aware or conscious of.

 

Receding (-ing form of the verb to recede) - to move further away into the distance, or to become less clear.

 

Bend over (phrasal verb) - to bend at one's waist.

 

Dome (noun) - a rounded vault forming the roof of a building or structure.

 

Far off (adjective) - a great distance away.

 

Default (verb to default) - to fail to do something.

 

Rages (verb to rage) - continue with great intensity

WRITING

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ESSAY

Peseshet is a doctor and a teacher. The video describes a typical day of her life.

Now it is you turn. Write a text :

- Present yourself.

- Describe your profession.

- Tell what you did to get this job.

- Describe a typical day of your life : what usually happens when you are at work?

 

CORRECTION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - OPTION

You can book a one to one class with a teacher who will correct your writing exercise.  One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day. 

This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.

Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.

PART 6 : SPEAKING

SPEAKING

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - OPTION

You can book a one to one class with a teacher for the speaking.  One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day. 

This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.

Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.

Our online classes range from A1 to C2 levels, including specific class contents and online video classes.  They are designed to improve communication of spoken and written English with learner-centred lessons which help build students’ confidence, accuracy and fluency.

Our online learning classes offer an extensive level of flexibility for individual students, with comprehensive syllabus and content.