B1 - Lesson 4

Part 1 : Video Lesson & Transcript

Part : Listening & Reading comprehension

Part 3 : Use of English

Part 4 : Grammar lesson

Part 5 : Writing an essay & corrections

Part 6 : Speaking, interaction, & explanations.

INSTRUCTIONS

Please make sure you unfold each content for each part of the lesson.  Merci de déplier chaque contenu pour chaque partie de cette leçon.

LINKS TO GRAMMAR BOOKS :

PART 1 : VIDEO BASED LESSON & TRANSCRIPT

See instructions beneath the video.

VIDEO : CLICK ON THE PICTURE

Ramon Glazov, Rome's most notorious doctor.

Image

Ramon Glazov, Rome's most notorious doctor.

In the 16th century, an anatomist named Andreas Vesalius made a shocking discovery: the most famous human anatomy texts in the world were wrong. While Vesalius knew he was right, announcing the errors would mean challenging Galen of Pergamon. Who was this towering figure? And why was he still revered and feared 1,300 years later? Ramon Glazov profiles the most renowned physician in medical history. [Directed by Anton Bogaty, narrated by Addison Anderson].

VIDEO : EXERCISE

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - INSTRUCTIONS

INSTRUCTIONS TO WORK ON THE VIDEO :

1) Listen to the video without reading the text / transcript

2) Then Listen to the video again reading the transcript as you listen.

3) Then listen to the video again without reading the transcript.

VIDEO TRANSCRIPT

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - TEXT

In the middle of the 16th century, a talented young anatomist named Andreas Vesalius made a shocking discovery: the most famous human anatomy texts in the world were wrong. They not only failed to account for many details of the human body, they also described the organs of apes and other mammals. While Vesalius knew he was right, announcing these errors would mean challenging Galen of Pergamon– the most renowned physician in medical history. But who was this towering figure? And why did doctors working more than 1,300 years later so revere and fear him? 

Born in 129 CE, Galen left home as a teen to scour the Mediterranean for medical wisdom. He returned home a gifted surgeon with a passion for anatomy and a penchant for showmanship. He gleefully entered public anatomy contests, eager to show up his fellow physicians. In one demonstration, he caused a pig to lose its voice by tying off one of its nerves. In another, he disemboweled a monkey and challenged his colleagues to repair it. When they couldn’t, he did. These grizzly feats won him a position as surgeon to the city’s gladiators. Eventually, he would leave the arena to become the personal physician to four Roman Emperors. 

While his peers debated symptoms and their origins, Galen obsessively studied anatomy. He was convinced that each organ had a specific function. Since the Roman government largely prohibited working with human cadavers, Galen conducted countless dissections of animals instead. Even with this constraint, his exhaustive investigations yielded some remarkably accurate conclusions. 

One of Galen’s most important contributions was the insight that the brain, not the heart, controlled the body. He confirmed this theory by opening the cranium of a living cow. By applying pressure to different parts of the brain, he could link various regions to specific functions. Other experiments allowed him to distinguish sensory from motor nerves, establish that urine was made in the kidneys, and deduce that respiration was controlled by muscles and nerves. 

But these wild experiments also produced extraordinary misconceptions. Galen never realized that blood cycles continuously throughout the body. Instead, he believed the liver constantly produces an endless supply of blood, which gets entirely depleted on its one-way trip to the organs. Galen is also credited with solidifying the popular theory of the Four Humours. Introduced by Hippocrates centuries earlier, this misguided hypothesis attributed most medical problems to an imbalance in four bodily fluids called humours. To correct the balance of these fluids, doctors employed dangerous treatments like bloodletting and purging. Informed by his poor understanding of the circulatory system, Galen was a strong proponent of these treatments, despite their sometimes lethal consequences. 

Unfortunately, Galen’s ego drove him to believe that all his discoveries were of the utmost importance. He penned treatises on everything from anatomy to nutrition to bedside manner, meticulously cataloguing his writings to ensure their preservation. Over the next 13 centuries, Galen’s prolific collection dominated all other schools of medical thought. His texts became the standard works taught to new generations of doctors, who in turn, wrote new essays extolling Galen’s ideas. Even doctors who actually dissected human cadavers would bafflingly repeat Galen’s mistakes, despite seeing clear evidence to the contrary. Meanwhile, the few practitioners bold enough to offer conflicting opinions were either ignored or ridiculed. 

For 1,300 years, Galen’s legacy remained untouchable– until renaissance anatomist Vesalius spoke out against him. As a prominent scientist and lecturer, his authority influenced many young doctors of his time. But even then, it took another hundred years for an accurate description of blood flow to emerge, and two hundred more for the theory of the Four Humours to fade. Hopefully, today we can reap the benefits of Galen’s experiments without attributing equal credence to his less accurate ideas. But perhaps just as valuable is the reminder that science is an ever-evolving process, which should always place evidence above ego. 

PART 2 : COMPREHENSION

  1. Listen to the video and answer all questions below  without reading the transcript /text of the video.
  2. Then read the transcript of the video and check your answers, before looking at the corrections.

LISTENING & READING COMPREHENSION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - QUESTIONS

According to the video, are these statements true or false?

 

  1. Vesalius found the accuracy of the anatomy books shocking.
  2. Galen won recognition as a surgeon due to victories in public contests of anatomy
  3. Galen made huge progress in his studies of human anatomy due to experiments on human cadavers.

 4. Galen was the responsible for the recognition of the brain as the controller of the human body.

5. Galen gave had perfect understanding of the blood cycle.

6. Doctors were never capable of admitting that Galen made a lot of mistakes.

7. Science should never place ego above evidence.

ANSWERS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ANSWERS

According to the video, are these statements true or false?

 

  1. F
  2. T
  3. F

4. T

5. F

6. T

7. T

PART 3 : USE OF ENGLISH

USE OF ENGLISH

UNFOLD - DEPLIER- QUESTIONS

Take a look at the following sentence from the text:

(...) Doctors (...) would bafflingly repeat Galen’s mistakes, despite seeing clear evidence to the contrary. 

 

Can you understand the meaning of despite in the sentence?

Take a look at the explanation below, which will give you some insight into the conjunctions.

 

in spite of / despite / although

In spite ofdespite and although are all used to show a contrast but there are differences in the structures used with them.In spite of / despite
After in spite of and despite we use a noun or a pronoun:

-We enjoyed our camping holiday in spite of the rain.

-Despite the pain in his leg he completed the marathon.

-Despite having all the necessary qualifications, they didn’t offer me the job.

Remember that the gerund (‘-ing’ form) is the ‘noun’ form of a verb.The only difference between in spite of and despite is the ‘of’.

Incorrect: Despite of the bad weather, there was a large crowd at the match.

 

We can use in spite of and despite with a subject and verb if we include the expression ‘the fact that’:

-In spite of the fact that he worked very hard, he didn’t manage to pass the exam.

-Despite the fact that he worked very hard, he didn’t manage to pass the exam.

 

Although
After although we use a subject and a verb:

-We enjoyed our camping holiday although it rained every day.

-Although he worked very hard, he didn’t manage to pass the exam.

-The holiday was great although the hotel wasn’t very nice.

 

Even though
Even though is a slightly stronger form of although:

-We decided to buy the house even though we didn’t really have enough money.

-You keep making that stupid noise even though I’ve asked you to stop three times.

Like although, even though is followed by a subject and a verb.

 

Exercise:

Complete the sentences using although or despite.

 

1. ____________________ his sickness he attended the class yesterday.

2. ____________________ he didn't feel well, he went fishing.

3. We arrived at the meeting on time ____________________ heavy traffic.

4. I failed in my chemistry exam ____________________ I studied all night.

5. ____________________all my effort, I couldn't convince my parents to let me go out.

6.____________________ his anger, he apologized to his friend for shouting.

7. Claudia has many friends ____________________ she is very shy.

8. ____________________ I was afraid of dark, I had to walk home alone yesterday night.

9. We finished the race as the first ____________________ many difficulties.

10. ____________________ she can't see well, she prefers to sit in the back.

CORRECTIONS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ANSWERS

1. Despite

2. Although

3. despite

4. although

5. Despite

6. Despite

7. although

8. Although

9. despite

10. Although

 

TRADUCTION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - EXERCISE

Traduire les phrases suivantes en anglais, issues du texte, puis retrouver ces phrases dans les premiers deux paragraphs du texte en anglais:

1. Ils avaient non seulement échoué à rendre compte de nombreux détails du corps humains, ils decrivaient également des organes de singes et autre mammifère.

2. Il retourna chez lui en chirurgien doué doté d'une passion pour l'anatomie et d'un penchant pour le spectacle.

PART 4 : GRAMMAR

LESSON

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - EXPLANATION

Essential Grammar in use p 149-150

unit 71 I like music    I hate exams

EXERCISES

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - QUESTIONS

Which is right?

1 My favorite sport is tennis / the tennis. tennis is right

2 I like this hotel. Rooms / The rooms are are very nice.The room is right

3 Everybody nees friends / the friends.

4 jane doesnt go to parties / the parties.

5 I went shopping this morning. Shops / The shops are very busy.

6 'Where is the milk / milk ?' 'It's in the frige .'

7 I don't like milk / the milk. I never drink it.

8 Do you do any sports? Yes I play football / the football.

9 These days a lot of people use computers / the computeurs.

10 We went down for a swim in the river. Water / The water was very cold.

11 I don't like swimming in cold water / the cold water.

12 Excuse me , can you pass salt / the salt please?

13 I like this town. I like people / the people here.

14 Vegetables / The vegetables are good for you.

15 'Where are children / the children?'  'They're in the garden.'

16 I can't sing this song. I don't know words / the words.

17 I enjoy taking photographs / the photographs. It's my hobby.

18 I must show you photographs / the photographs that I took when I was on holiday.

19 English / The English is used a lot in international business / the international business.

20 Money / The money doesn't always bring happiness / the happiness.

CORRECTIONS

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - CORRECTIONS

3 friends.

4 parties

5 The shops

6 the milk

7 milk

8 football

9 computers

10 The water

11 cold water

12 the salt

13 the people

14 Vegetables

15 the children

16 the words

17 photographs

18 the photographs

19 English .... international business

20 Money ... happiness

PART 5 : WRITING

VOCABULARY

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - WORD LIST

Vocabulary:

(please note that this definitions are according to the context)

Word(s)

Description

Meaning

failed

verb, past simple of to fail

Be unsuccessful in achieving one's goal.

account

verb

consider or regard in a specified way

challenging

Verb, -ing form of challenge

make a rival claim to or threaten someone's hold on (a position)

renowned

adjective

known or talked about by many people; famous

towering

adjective

of great importance or influence

revere

verb

feel deep respect or admiration for

scour

verb

to search a place or thing very carefully in order to try to find something

penchant

noun

liking for, an enjoyment of, or a habit of doing something

showmanship

noun

the ability to entertain people

gleefully

adverb

in an exuberantly or triumphantly joyful manner

tying off

-ing form of the phrasal verb to tie off

to fasten or hold (something) by tying a knot or bow at its end

disemboweled

Verb, past and past participle of the verb to disembowel

cut open and remove the internal organs of

feats

noun, plural of feat

an achievement that requires great courage, skill, or strength

peers

noun, plural of peer

a person of the same age, status, or ability as another specified person

countless

adjective

too many to be counted; very many

instead

adverb

as an alternative or substitute

constraint

noun

a limitation or restriction

yielded

verb, past and past participle of to yield

produce or generate

remarkably

adverb

in a way that is worthy of attention

insight

noun

cleardeep, and sometimes 

sudden understanding of a complicated problem or situation

deduce

verb

arrive at (a fact or a conclusion) by reasoning; draw as a logical conclusion

misconception

noun

a view or opinion that is incorrect because based on faulty thinking or understanding

liver

noun

a large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates, involved in many metabolic processes

depleted

verb, past and past participle of the verb to deplete

exhaust the abundance

credited

verb, past and past participle of the verb to credit

to praise or approveespecially

to recognize achievement

misguided

adjective

having or showing faulty judgement or reasoning

imbalance

noun

lack of proportion or relation between corresponding things

bloodletting

noun

the surgical removal of some of a patient's blood for therapeutic purposes

purging

noun

empty one’s stomach or bowels by inducing vomiting or using laxatives

proponent

noun

person who supports an ideaplan, or cause

drove him to believe

expression, past of the verb to drive, drive someone to believe in something

made him think

utmost

adjective

most extreme; greatest

penned

verb, past and past participle of to pen

to use a pen to write or draw something with ink

treatises

noun, plural of treatise

a written work dealing formally and systematically with a subject

Bedside manner

noun

the way in which a doctor treats people who are illespecially showing kind,friendly, and understanding behaviour

prolific

adjective

present in large numbers or quantities; plentiful

in turn

expression

because of that

extolling

verb, -ing form of the verb to extol

praise enthusiastically

bafflingly

adverb

impossible to understand; perplexing

bold

adjective

showing a willingness to take risks; confident and courageous

untouchable

adjective

unable to be matched or rivalled

Spoke out

phrasal verb, past of to speak out

express one's opinions frankly and publicly

prominent

adjective

important; famous

emerge

verb

become apparent or prominent

fade

verb

gradually grow faint and disappear

reap

verb

receive (something, especially something beneficial) as a consequence of one's own or another's actions

credence

noun

Belief in or acceptance of something as true

WRITING

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - ESSAY

Peseshet is a doctor and a teacher. The video describes a typical day of her life.

Now it is you turn. Write a text :

- Present yourself.

- Describe your profession.

- Tell what you did to get this job.

- Describe a typical day of your life : what usually happens when you are at work?

 

CORRECTION

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - OPTION

You can book a one to one class with a teacher who will correct your writing exercise.  One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day. 

This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.

Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.

PART 6 : SPEAKING

SPEAKING

UNFOLD - DEPLIER - OPTION

You can book a one to one class with a teacher for the speaking.  One to one classes can be online, with a video call, anytime of the day. 

This gives you full flexibility for your timetable.

Please send us an email at afterschool at afterschoollyon.com.

Our online classes range from A1 to C2 levels, including specific class contents and online video classes.  They are designed to improve communication of spoken and written English with learner-centred lessons which help build students’ confidence, accuracy and fluency.

Our online learning classes offer an extensive level of flexibility for individual students, with comprehensive syllabus and content.